Immobilization and phytoavailability of cadmium in variable charge soils. II. Effect of lime addition.
N.S. Bolan1, D.C. Adriano2, P.A. Mani3, and A. Duraisamy3
of Natural Resources, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand.
The effect of pH-increases due to Ca(OH)2
and KOH addition on the adsorption of cadmium (Cd) was examined in two
soils which varied in their variable-charge components. The effect of
Ca(OH)2 on immobilization and phytoavailability of Cd from
one of the soils, treated with various levels of Cd (0-10 mg Cd kg-1
soil), was further evaluated using mustard (Brassica juncea
L.) plants. Cadmium immobilization in soil was evaluated by a chemical
fractionation scheme. The addition of Ca(OH)2 and KOH increased
the soil pH, thereby increasing the adsorption of Cd, the effect being
more pronounced in the soil dominated by variable charge components. There
was a greater increase in Cd2+ adsorption in the KOH-treated
than the Ca(OH)2-treated soil, which is attributed to the greater
competition of Ca2+ for adsorption. Increasing addition of
Cd enhanced Cd concentration in plants, resulting in decreased plant growth
(i.e., phytotoxicity). Although addition of Ca(OH)2 effectively
reduced Cd phytotoxicity, Cd uptake increased at the highest level, probably
due to decreased Cd2+ adsorption resulting from increased Ca2+
competition. There was a significant inverse relationship between dry
matter yield and Cd concentration in soil solution. Addition of Ca(OH)2
decreased the concentration of the soluble + exchangeable Cd fraction
but increased the concentration of inorganic-bound Cd fractions in soil.
Since there was no direct evidence for CdCO3 or Cd(OH)2
precipitation in the variable charge soil used for the plant growth experiment,
alleviation of phytotoxicity can be attributed primarily to immobilization
of Cd by enhanced pH-induced increases in negative charge.
cadmium, calcium, heavy metal, immobilization, pH, phytoavailability,
precipitation, surface charge
SREL Reprint #2680
Bolan, N. S., D. C. Adriano, P. A. Mani, and A. Duraisamy. 2003. Immobilization and phytoavailability of cadmium in variable charge soils. II. Effect of lime addition. Plant and Soil 251:187-198.