Bromine, Chlorine, & Fluorine
W. T. FRANKENBERGER, JR., University of California, Riverside, California
M. A. TABATABAI, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa
D. C. ADRIANO, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina
H. E. DONER, University of California, Berkeley, California
This chapter is a revised version of the comprehensive treatment on Cl, Br, and F
by Adriano and Doner (1982), which was a revision of earlier chapters by Stout
and Johnson (1965) and Brewer (1965a). Because the methods have changed
little, if any, over the past 20 yr, they are essentially the same as those described in
the previous edition.
The halides Br, Cl, and Fl are ubiquitous in nature and are found in agricultural
lands from a variety of sources. Soil is adulterated with Br from fumigants, Cl from
irrigation water, animal wastes, fertilizers, and rainwater, and F from fertilizers,
insecticides, and rainwater. Bromide and Cl- are considered relatively soluble and
can be readily leached in soils. Because of this property, Brand Cl- are used as
tracers of nitrate, salt, and water movement in soils. Chlorine is an essential plant
micronutrient, and F is essential for animal nutrition in trace amounts. Their
occurrence in soils is quite variable, ranging from almost none to as high as several
hundred milligrams per kilogram. Therefore, the analytical methods should have
the sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and speed for the measurement of Br, Cl, and
F in the milligrams per kilogram range. A variety of analytical procedures that will
allow a great deal of flexibility for the analysts is outlined in this chapter.
Limitations and advantages are discussed where appropriate.
SREL Reprint #2148
Frankenberger, W.T., Jr., M.A. Tabatabai, D.C. Adriano, and H.E. Doner.
1996. Bromine, Chloride, & Fluorine. p. 833-867. In Methods of Soil Analysis.
Part 3. Chemical Methods, edited by D.L. Sparks. 3rd ed., Agronomy no.9 Vol.
Soil Science Society of America American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI.
To request a reprint