SREL Reprint #2148





Chapter 31
Bromine, Chlorine, & Fluorine

W. T. FRANKENBERGER, JR., University of California, Riverside, California

M. A. TABATABAI, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa

D. C. ADRIANO, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina

H. E. DONER, University of California, Berkeley, California


This chapter is a revised version of the comprehensive treatment on Cl, Br, and F by Adriano and Doner (1982), which was a revision of earlier chapters by Stout and Johnson (1965) and Brewer (1965a). Because the methods have changed little, if any, over the past 20 yr, they are essentially the same as those described in the previous edition.
The halides Br, Cl, and Fl are ubiquitous in nature and are found in agricultural lands from a variety of sources. Soil is adulterated with Br from fumigants, Cl from irrigation water, animal wastes, fertilizers, and rainwater, and F from fertilizers, insecticides, and rainwater. Bromide and Cl- are considered relatively soluble and can be readily leached in soils. Because of this property, Brand Cl- are used as tracers of nitrate, salt, and water movement in soils. Chlorine is an essential plant micronutrient, and F is essential for animal nutrition in trace amounts. Their occurrence in soils is quite variable, ranging from almost none to as high as several hundred milligrams per kilogram. Therefore, the analytical methods should have the sensitivity, accuracy, precision, and speed for the measurement of Br, Cl, and F in the milligrams per kilogram range. A variety of analytical procedures that will allow a great deal of flexibility for the analysts is outlined in this chapter. Limitations and advantages are discussed where appropriate.

SREL Reprint #2148

Frankenberger, W.T., Jr., M.A. Tabatabai, D.C. Adriano, and H.E. Doner. 1996. Bromine, Chloride, & Fluorine. p. 833-867. In Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods, edited by D.L. Sparks. 3rd ed., Agronomy no.9 Vol. Soil Science Society of America American Society of Agronomy. Madison, WI.

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