|SREL Reprint #2111|
CHICORY (CICHORIUM INTYBUS L.) AND DANDELION (TARAXACUM OFFICINALE WEB.) AS PHYTOINDICATORS OF CADMIUM CONTAMINATION
L. SIMON, H. W. MARTIN and D. C. ADRIANO
University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802, USA
Abstract. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion (Taraxacum
officinale Web.) were demonstrated to be potential indicator plants for heavy
metal contaminated sites. Chicory, grown with 0.5-50 µM cadmium (Cd) in
nutrient solution, accumulated 10-300 µg Cd g-1 in shoots and 10-890 µg Cd µg-1
in roots and rhizomes. With dandelion, 20-410 µg Cd µg-1 was found in shoots
and 20-1360 µg Cd µg-1 in roots and rhizomes. An inverse correlation existed
between chlorophyll and Cd concentrations in shoots of both species.
Accumulation of Cd from nutrient solution was similar with the counter-anions
S042-, Cl1-, and N03- in chicory. In chicory grown in Cd-amended (11.2 kg Cd
ha-1 applied five years previously) soils, Cd concentrations were substantially
higher than in controls in all plant parts following the order: leaf > caudex > stem >
root and rhizome. The above trend was the opposite of that observed in solution
culture, where Cd accumulation was higher in roots and rhizomes than in shoots.
Higher cadmium accumulation was found from a Cd-treated sand (Grossarenic
Paleudult) than from a loamy sand (Typic Kandiudult) soil type. Chicory and
dandelion are proposed indicator plants of cadmium contamination, and both have
the potential to be an international standard heavy phytomonitor species of heavy
SREL Reprint #2111
Simon, L., H.W. Martin, and D.C. Adriano. 1996. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale web.) as phytoindicators of cadmium contaminators. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 91:351-362.