SREL Reprint #2063

 

 

 

 

Observations of agonistic and mutualistic interactions between birds and non-avian vertebrates on the E.S. George Reserve, Michigan

Nagle, R.D., R.C. van Loben Sels, and J.D. Congdon

 

Only two interactions between birds and non-avian vertebrates, other than direct acts of predation and mobbing behaviors, were observed during an 18-year turtle study on the University of Michigan's E. S. George Reserve. The first involved a pair of Gray Catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) that attacked a Blue Racer (Coluber constrictor), and the second observation involved a White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) that appeared to solicit cleaning activities from a male Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus).

Key words: Blue Racer, Coluber constrictor, Catbird, Dumetalla carolinensis, cleaning behavior, interspecific encounter, mutualism, nest defense, Red-winged Blackbird, Agelaius phoeniceus, White-tailed Deer, Odocoileus virginianus

 

SREL Reprint #2063

Nagle, R.D., R.C. van Loben Sels, and J.D. Congdon. 1995. Observations of agonistic and mutualistic interactions between birds and non-avian vertebrates on the E.S. George Reserve, Michigan. Canadian Field Naturalist 109:464-466.

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