SREL Reprint #1944

 

 

 

 

Evaluation of the effects of cryopreservation of isolated erythrocytes and leukocytes of largemouth bass by flow cytometry

S. K. FISHER1, J. T. LINGENFELSER2, C. H. JAGOE2 AND C. E. DALLAS1
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602;
2D. B. Warnell School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 and
3University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, PO Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802, U.S.A.

We examined the effects of separation and freezing on fish leukocyte and erythrocyte morphology by light microscopy and on DNA content as measured by flow cytometry (FCM). Leukocytes and erythrocytes of largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides were isolated by density gradient centrifugation of whole blood, and frozen in liquid nitrogen in a buffer containing DMSO as a cryopreservative. The coefficient of variation (CV) of the G0/G1 peak of the cells was used to assess variation in nuclear DNA content within cell populations before and after separation and freezing treatments. In erythrocytes, the CV did not change significantly (P>0-05) when nuclei were isolated and stained without freezing or when erythrocytes were frozen prior to nuclear isolation and staining. In leukocytes, freezing and thawing prior to isolation and staining of nuclei significantly increased the CV (P<0-05), and produced hyperdiploid shoulders of the G0/G1 peak. However, the CV of leukocyte nuclei that were isolated and stained prior to freezing and the CV of non-frozen leukocyte nuclei did not differ (P>0-05). Microscopy showed that the freezing protocol had little effect on erythrocyte morphology, but caused irregular swelling in leukocytes. Freezing intact leukocytes also significantly (P<0-05) altered the apparent distribution of cells among the phases of the cell cycle as measured by FCM. The distributions of leukocyte nuclei that were isolated and stained prior to freezing were not different to non-frozen leukocytes. DNA measurements of nucleated blood cells are widely used in physiological, genetic and toxicological studies. Our results suggest that whole blood and erythrocytes for use in such studies can be frozen whole using a simple protocol, but leukocyte nuclei must be isolated and stained before freezing to avoid serious artifacts.

Key words: largemouth bass; erythrocytes; leukocytes; cryopreservation; flow cytometry; morphology; DNA content; coefficient of variation.

SREL Reprint #1944

Fisher, S.K., J.T. Lingenfelser, C.H. Jagoe, and C.E. Dallas. 1995. Evaluation of the effects of cryopreservation of isolated erythrocytes and leukocytes of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) by flow cytometry. Journal of Fish Biology 46:432-441.

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