mortality of anthracene contaminated fish exposed to sunlight
J. W. Bowling,
G. J. Leversee1, P. F. Landrum2 and J. P. Giesy3
Savannah River Ecology Laboratory Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29801, U.S.A.
mortality of bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) dosed with
anthracene at 12.7 µg/l and exposed to natural sunlight conditions
was observed during a study of anthracene fate in outdoor channel microcosms.
No mortality was observed under control conditions (natural sunlight
and no anthracene). Fish survived when held in the shade downstream
of sunlit contaminated water, arguing against mortality due to toxic
anthracene photoproducts in the water. Fish held 48 h in anthracene
contaminated water (˜12 µg/l), in a shaded channel, died
when placed in clean water and exposed to sunlight. After 144 h depuration
in darkness, fish anthracene concentrations had decreased to pre-exposure
concentrations and no mortality was observed when fish were subsequently
exposed to sunlight. This observed photo-induced toxic response in anthracene
contaminated fish may represent a significant environmental hazard of
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic environments.
Keywords: hydrocarbon; PAH; anthracene; toxicity; phototoxicity;
1 Present address: Division of Sciences, Keene State College,
Keene, NH 03431, U.S.A.
2 Present address: Great Lakes Environmental Research
Laboratory, NOAA, Ann Arbor, MI 48104, U.S.A.
3 Present address: Pesticide Research Center and Department
of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing,
MI 48824, U.S.A.
Bowling, J.W., G.J. Leversee, P.F. Landrum, and J.P. Giesy. 1983. Acute
mortality of anthracene contaminated fish exposed to sunlight. Aquatic