Relations of Three Species of Lycosid Spiders
E. J. Kuenzler
Three species of large, nocturnal wolf spiders, Lycosa carolinensis,
L. timugua, and L. rabida, were studied in various
sandy coastal plain habitats of Aiken County, South Carolina.
The position of these species in relation to seven other lycosids in
the upland Sere was worked out (Table 1). A simple mark-and-recapture
method was utilized on 6 one-tenth hectare quadrants to determine spatial
relations. In general, L. timuqua proved to be the most
abundant of the three in all types of habitat studied except where there
was an abundance of broomsedge in fields or a reasonably dense understory
in scrub woods, in which case L. rabida was more numerous.
Home range was represented in two ways. The first, as an irregular
polygon with corners formed by recapture loci, gave a crude estimate
because of the small number of recaptures but indicated a small home
range for each species. The second representation, a frequency
histogram of the square roots of activity radii, confirmed the small
home range and also showed that the burrowers, L. carolinensis,
and L. timuqua center their activity around the burrow while
L. rabida, a non-burrower, wanders more nearly at random over
its home range. The distribution of the spiders within any one
uniform habitat was usually random. The activities of L. carolinensis
and L. timuqua proved to be positively correlated with temperature
and relative humidity. The primary ecological factor separating
L. rabida from the other two seems to be vertical stratification
since L. rabida is more frequently found above the ground surface.
The exact differences in the niches of L. timuqua and L.
carolinensis are not apparent from this study.
E.J. 1958. Niche relations of three species of lycosid spiders. Ecology